The study set out to find out if long-term hypoxia might positively affect the muscle oxidative capacity and capillarity.

Altitude dwellers such as those living at high altitude in Bolivia, Tibet and Chile have been exposed to altitudes in excess of 3500m for thousands of generations, and there is evidence for genetic adaptations to positively manage chronic hypoxia.

Training in hypoxia results (at molecular level), an up-regulation in the regulation of hyxpoxia inducible factor-1 as a genetic response.

Functional analysis post-altitude exposure found positive effects on VO2 max, on max power output and on lean body mass. Additionally, the positive effects of hypoxic training extend to lowering the risk factors for cardiovascular disease.